What do we propose when we talk about a pneumatic transport installation?

A pneumatic conveying system is capable of moving solids in pellets or dust from one point to another, either vertically or horizontally, thanks to a air current that drags or sucks the flow through piping at a determined speed and direction .
The air volume and pressure needed to convey a flow is directly related to the distance to travel and the product to be conveyed.

The layout of this type of facilities has great implementation possibilities in an existing installation, since they can adopt the vertical or horizontal route with a great flexibility, requiring reduced space in plant.

In the design of a pneumatic conveying installation there are multiple variables for its correct operation that will depend to a large extent on the product to be transported. Their physical properties must be known, such as the size and shape of the particles, density, flowability, permeability, abrasivity, conductivity, etc.

There are different conveying types according to the product-gas ratio established for the solid convey:

Gravity conveying

The product flows by vertical duct thanks to its own weight and the gravity force.

Possitive or negative pressure conveying

The gas undergoes a positive or negative pressure that, when mixed with the product, conveys it to its destination.
Render 01

Depending on the gas-product mass ratio, pressure and velocity, conveying can be established in dense, diluted or semi-dense phase.

Diluted phase

Large volumes of high velocity air are required for products that are not brittle or abrasive and with little risk of segregation.

Dense phase

The volume of air is much lower than in the diluted phase, but the pressure exerted on the fluid must be greater, since the solid is conveyed by thrust. It is widely used for fragile and abrasive products conveying.

The circuit of a pneumatic conveying system can be closed or open loop.

Open loop

The conveying gas is released to the atmosphere, previously separated from the product and filtered, renewing itself continuously at its feeding point.

Closed loop

The conveying gas is recirculated to the feed point after it has been separated from the solid.

The pneumatic conveying system is based on four zones

Primary device

It will establish the gas conditions to convey the product through:
→ Compressors
→ Vacuum pumps
→ Fans

Mixing and accelerating zone

The product is introduced into the gaseous flow by mixing in it along a horizontal pipe in which the gas will reach the necessary acceleration to convey the solid.

Conveying area

Set of ducts, curves, elbows and valves which the product will pass through.

Solid-gas separation zone

A pressure drop is established through filters and cyclones that separate the gas from the solid, being ready for unloading or storage.